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Wired Wyatt’s
The Wired Waffles product has generated about $30,000 in sales since last fall, according to company founder Roger Sullivan.

FDA mulls rules for caffeine-charged foods

Who needs coffee for breakfast when you can pour Wired Wyatt’s caffeinated maple syrup over your Wired Waffles? Remember Cracker Jack? This year saw the advent of Cracker Jack’d Power Bites, with as much caffeine per serving as a cup of coffee.

Americans, it turns out, are willing to gobble up caffeine in all kinds of foods – from potato chips to sunflower seeds to beef jerky. Not to mention gummy bears and marshmallows. Energy-boosting foods racked up more than $1.6 billion in domestic retail sales last year, up nearly 50 percent from five years ago, according to the market research firm Euromonitor International.

The trend, experts say, reflects a rush by food manufacturers to cater to consumers’ increasingly frenetic lives – and to cash in on the popularity and profitability of high-caffeine energy drinks.

“This is something that’s going to continue to grow,” said Roger Sullivan, founder of Wired Waffles, in Marysville, Wash. He says his product is popular with endurance runners, long-haul truck drivers and sleep-deprived college students. “It’s definitely a market where I think a lot of large companies are figuring out how to jump in.”

But the growing interest of big food companies might mean the party is over, at least for now.

The Food and Drug Administration threw a wet blanket on the caffeine-laced food craze recently when it asked foodmakers to take a timeout. Concerned about the potential health effects on children, as well as Americans’ cumulative caffeine intake, officials said they want to investigate whether new rules are needed to govern caffeine in foods.

“It’s a trend that raises real concerns,” Michael Taylor, the FDA’s top food safety official, said in an interview. “We’re not here to say that these products are inherently unsafe. We’re trying to understand, what are the right questions to be asking? … We have to figure out, what are the right ways to approach this?”

The agency, which has watched the proliferation of caffeinated foods with increasing alarm, took action after Wrigley launched a caffeinated gum, Alert Energy, in late April with full-page newspaper ads, a promotion at 7-Eleven stores and a NASCAR car plastered with the gum’s logo. Each stick contains the caffeine of half a cup of coffee.

“When you start putting caffeine in these different products and forms, do we really understand the effects?” Taylor said, describing the concerns he and others shared with Wrigley executives who met with FDA officials shortly after the rollout of Alert gum. “Isn’t it time to pause and exercise some restraint?”

The company, which declined an interview request, quickly pulled its new gum from the market. While noting that it had put the caffeine content on the label and marketed Alert only to people over 25, Wrigley said in a statement that it was halting production “out of respect for the FDA” while the agency developed “a new regulatory framework” for caffeinated food and drinks.

Taylor said FDA officials have long been aware of smaller manufacturers making niche caffeinated food. He said the agency became concerned when food giants such as PepsiCo – which owns Frito-Lay, the maker of Cracker Jack’d – and other companies began dipping their toes into the caffeinated food market.

What the FDA might do to revamp its oversight of caffeinated foods remains unclear, and it probably will take months or even years before it settles on any new rules. More detailed labeling requirements for caffeine in foods seem likely.

In any case, top officials decided the status quo was not working.

“We believe that some in the food industry are on a dubious, potentially dangerous path,” Taylor said, adding that, if necessary, “we are prepared to go through the regulatory process to establish clear boundaries and conditions on caffeine use.”

The only time the FDA explicitly approved adding caffeine as an ingredient was for sodas. That was in the 1950s, long before it could have predicted the proliferation in caffeinated food products.

Researchers have said 400 milligrams of caffeine per day – roughly 4 to 5 cups of coffee – is generally safe for adults.

There is no set level for children, although the American Academy of Pediatrics has discouraged any caffeine consumption for young people, citing concerns about “its effects on the developing neurologic and cardiovascular systems and the risk of physical dependence and addiction.”

Manufacturers must include caffeine on their lists of ingredients, but they are not required to detail how much is in each product.

Roland Griffiths, a behavioral biology professor at Johns Hopkins University who has studied the effects of caffeine for decades, said the caffeinated food trend may be part of a larger cultural shift.

“Coffee used to be the primary delivery system (for caffeine),” he said, but “we have a whole new generation of people coming up who are not exclusive coffee drinkers.”