At work, Ted Prices latest pride and joy is a video game in which the cardinal rule is dont trust anyone, bullets fly from guns the size of a side of beef, and a fighters response to another characters warning that You cant kill a senator is Why not? I didnt vote for him.
At home, where Price does not permit his four children to play violent games, he and his 12-year-old daughter spend a Saturday afternoon sitting side by side, playing The Sims 3: University Life, which sparks the most frank discussion hes ever had with his child about cliques, gender and homosexuality.
A dozen times a day, Price, chief executive and founder of Insomniac Games, a studio that makes everything from kids games to violent shooters, flits seamlessly between the kind of games that many politicians and parents abhor and the more benign brand that virtually everyone embraces.
Three decades after video games joined the main stage of American pop culture, the school shootings in Newtown united voices across the political spectrum in renewed condemnation of the amoral violence in some of the most popular games. When authorities unsealed search warrants in the Newtown investigation March 28, the documents confirmed news reports that a witness had described shooter Adam Lanza as a shut-in and avid gamer who played the first-person shooter Call of Duty.
Social scientists and game creators such as Price agree that just because someone has a passion for killing with a joystick, it doesnt make him any more likely to turn to real-world violence. Violence is as essential and defensible in the art of video games as it is in movies, books or TV, game makers say.
Yet many of them wont make first-person shooter games or wont play them in front of their own kids because the alluring interactivity of violent gaming has such a visceral impact.
In the search for causes and solutions after mass shootings, game violence is the rare target that unites left and right, Democrats and Republicans, gun boosters and gun opponents.
This isnt just about guns, Vice President Biden said in January. Its about the coarsening of our culture, whether its with video games or movies or behavior.
National Rifle Association President Wayne LaPierre said then: There exists in this country a callous, corrupt and corrupting shadow industry that sells and sows violence against its own people through vicious, violent video games with names like Bulletstorm, Grand Theft Auto, Mortal Kombat and Splatterhouse. (The NRAs own game, NRA: Practice Range, was released in January and engages users in target shooting.)
Part of culture
Violent games are no underground subculture. Five of the 10 best-selling video games in the United States last year were violent, adult-rated games, including the three most popular games, two versions of Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3 and Halo 4. The various versions of Call of Duty have sold more than 75 million units in the past three years. The top 10 also included family fare and sports games, such as Kinect Adventures! Just Dance 4 and Madden NFL 13.
Inside studios in Southern California suburbs that are better known as the home of the movie business, the artists and technicians who make video games traffic in stories, characters and effects designed to entertain, educate and excite. Some win sales and fans with cute or touching characters, some with tough moral dilemmas – and some by satisfying a craving to kill.
Ted Prices children are the second generation in his family to grow up with video games. When Price was a boy in Richmond, Va., in the 1970s, playing Pong on his friends Magnavox Odyssey console and then Combat on his own Atari 2600, games were something his parents watched from afar and restricted to weekends.
Price, 44, enforces the weekend rule for his own children, but games are now something that bring his family together, dancing to Just Dance, competing in Wii sports or playing college with The Sims.
Even as they search for the best strategies to make their Sims thrive on campus, father and daughter talk about what jocks and nerds are like in college, and what boys expect from girls.
Its not something I would have brought up with her, Price says. Playing the game together allowed that conversation to happen.
Interactivity is the key. In every game he develops or plays, Price says, Im part of that world Im moving through and Im connecting with characters and stories, which allows me to think more deeply about my own life experiences. Were influenced by everything we see, hear and do.
Thus his ban on violent games.
As a parent, Im going to intervene if I feel a game is having an effect I dont like, he says. Game makers who deny that their products can change users moods are not being honest, he says – of course they do, but thats not the same as inspiring violent behavior away from the game console.
Games about war, terrorism, alien invasions or crime are designed to arouse feelings of fear and aggression, all to deliver the games payoff – a sense of mastery and fulfillment. But at Insomniac and other studios, designers resist the idea that they dial up the violence just to rev up customers.
In Insomniacs new sci-fi game, Fuse, the main characters are operatives who shoot people and blow things up to save the world from a pernicious and mysterious substance. The shooting is there because the characters struggle to come together as a team and must overcome great dangers, Price says, so weapons that have a pretty visceral impact fit holistically. We dont single out violence as either a prerequisite or something to avoid. But we are storytellers, and violence is part of what humans experience. Conflict is what makes stories interesting, and resolving conflict creates fulfillment.
Whether hes making shooters or kids games, Price says, the goal is the same: Make people ask questions about themselves or their world. In Fuse, Price wants players to be confronted with questions such as What happens when people are given tools that are beyond the capabilities of their world? Does it change them?
Plenty of ammunition
The average age of game customers is now in the mid-30s, and about half the country plays video games of some sort. But the political debate over games has not changed appreciably since controversy over gore in the 1992 game Mortal Kombat – hearts ripped out of chests; bloody, severed heads – led the industry to police itself with a ratings system that prides itself on being tougher than Hollywoods.
Even a strongly worded U.S. Supreme Court ruling in 2011 rejecting as an unconstitutional infringement of free speech a California law that restricted the sale of violent games to children has done little to change the dynamic. In that 7 to 2 ruling, Justice Antonin Scalia wrote that Like the protected books, plays and movies that preceded them, video games communicate ideas – and even social messages.
As technology has improved, the range of games produced has broadened; shooter games are now vastly outnumbered by social, fantasy, educational and sports games. But as games have become more detailed, developers have also ratcheted up the level and realism of violence. The latest version of Mortal Kombat lets players cut their opponent in two with a buzzsaw. And the hugely popular Grand Theft Auto series – players can kill police officers and run over pedestrians – has given opponents enough ammunition to last a century.
The dimly lighted, open-space offices where many of Insomniacs 220 employees work at double-screened computers are nearly silent. Japanese shoji screens frame work spaces. Conversation occurs mainly electronically. Designers, animators, programmers and technicians dress nearly uniformly in hoodies, jeans and sneakers.
What drives us is the technological challenge, not the violence, says Al Hastings, who stumbled into games after studying cognitive science at Princeton.
He spends his days wrestling with how to use lighting and shading to create a realistic scene, not what role shooting plays in a narrative.
The way games fit into peoples lives is different for each person, he says. The moral complexities of a story affect people so differently, especially people with a personality disorder.
But even as they defend using violence to engage and stimulate players, some game makers say they are offended by titles that deploy guns and bombs without moral aims.
Its very scary to watch young people sitting down and shooting people on a screen every day, says Lorne Lanning, a longtime developer best known for the Oddworld series. Lanning believes too many people in the industry are willing to create amoral, violent worlds, satisfied simply to work on a successful game.
Insomniacs lead designer, Rowan Belden-Clifford, 24, grew up playing games, including violent shooters. But his passion was to work on games that tell complex moral stories.
I play games that have violence, he says, but as a means to get to basic questions about life. Theres always going to be a market for games like Call of Duty that tap into something primal in people and satisfy the desire to see big, bombastic things. But I dont want to make those.
Still, plenty of people do want to create such games. We have to make games that appeal to people who watch The Sopranos or go see Django Unchained, says Keith Boesky, a game publisher and agent in Los Angeles. Were not all angels. But these games arent for children.
The Obama administration has asked Congress to fund studies on the impact of video violence, but entire shelves of such studies have already been done, and they conclude that, as any player can affirm, violent games do arouse aggressive feelings and mild, short-term aggressive behavior. Whats less clear is whether playing such games translates into violent crime, except among highly aggressive people.
Social scientists have found that people who play violent games are more likely to act aggressively immediately after play.
People who consume a lot of violent media come to view the world as a hostile place, concludes Brad Bushman, an Ohio State professor who reviewed research on violent games for the National Science Foundation.
But some studies found it was more aggressive people who felt drawn to violent games in the first place, leading some researchers to conclude that theres no sure-fire way to determine whether game play encourages violent behavior or provides an outlet for people to safely vent their aggression.
Its not clear that its just the violence in the games that produces aggression; some studies point to the anonymity that games allow as what encourages antisocial behavior; players who are required to reveal their names tend to behave more responsibly.