SEVARE, Mali – The boy sits with his knees tucked under his chest on the concrete floor of the police station here, his adolescent face a tableau of fear. He’s still garbed in the knee-length tunic he was ordered to wear by the Islamic extremist who recruited him.
It’s these same clothes, styled after those worn by the Prophet Muhammad in the seventh century, that gave him away when he tried to flee last week. They have now become his prison garb.
Adama Drabo is 16, and his recruitment into the ranks of a group designated as a terrorist organization underscores the obstacles faced by France as it tries to wash its former West African colony clean of the al-Qaida-linked fighters occupying it.
In terms of the rules of engagement, you have to think to yourself, what will you do if a child comes up to you wearing an explosive vest? What do you do if a 12-year-old is manning a checkpoint? says Rudolph Atallah, former director of counterterrorism for Africa at the Pentagon during the Bush administration. It’s a very difficult situation.
France, which now has around 2,500 troops on the ground, plunged headfirst into the conflict in Mali two weeks ago, after the Islamist groups that have controlled the nation’s northern half since last year began an aggressive push southward.
The French soldiers are equipped with night-vision goggles, anti-tank mines and laser-guided bombs. But their enemy includes the hundreds of children, some as young as 11, who have been conscripted into the rebel army.
Among those the French will have to fight are boys like Adama, the uneducated, eldest child of a poor family of rice growers, who until recently spent his days plowing fields with oxen near the village of N’Denbougou.
Living just 15 miles from the central Malian town of Niono, which has become one of the frontlines in the recent war, Adama fits the profile of the types of children the Islamists have successfully recruited. His village has a single mosque, and unlike the moderate form of Islam practiced in much of Mali, the one he and his family attended preached Wahabism.
We have observed a pattern of recruitment of child soldiers from villages that for many years have practiced a very strict form of Islam, referred to as Wahabism, says Corinne Dufka, senior researcher for West Africa at Human Rights Watch. We estimate that hundreds of children have been recruited.
The groups allied with al-Qaida started recruiting children soon after they seized control of northern Mali last April. Rebel leaders quoted verses from the Quran which they claim describe children as the purest apprentices.
Since then, witnesses have described seeing children staffing checkpoints, riding in patrol vehicles, carrying out searches of cars stopped at roadblocks, as well as preparing tea and cooking food for the fighters in the towns controlled by the insurgents, Dufka says.
The United Nations children’s agency said late last year that it had been able to corroborate at least 175 reported cases of child soldiers in northern Mali, bought from their impoverished parents for between $1,000 and $1,200 a child.
Malian human rights officials put the total number of children recruited by the Islamists considerably higher at 1,000 – and that was before the French intervention.